Friday, April 20th: Chapters 1-6 in the Barron’s Review
Friday, April 27th: Chapters 7-12 in the Barron’s Review
Thursday, May 3rd: Chapters 13-16 in the Barron’s Review
Friday, May 4th: Test Info Session
Saturday, May 5th: Skype Session
Monday, May 7th: AP Chemistry Exam
Anything that is unclear right now will be fixed for tomorrow!
I teamed up with one of my close friends and we’ve made a two person study group. We’re meeting two days a week, one for bio and the other for chem. I’m going to do the work for bio and he’s going to do the work for chem, then we’ll switch.
Why is this relevant to you?
We’re doing several chapters a week, so I will be posting a lot of things on here.
What can you do to study during this crunch time besides just gawking at my posts?
You can do it along with me! In the next post I will post a schedule of what chapters are each week, and we can all submit our study sheets each Friday.
Do you feel too overwhelmed to make the study sheets yourself?
Do practice tests. And by that I mean sit down and do a dry run of a full-length test. The only way you’re gonna know what you need to focus on is by taking a practice test. If you have a review book it should be in the back, but you can also ask your teacher where to find full-length ones, because I don’t know haha.
Yes, the test is technically “next month”, but this is crunch time, people! We need to get our asses in gear if we wanna ace this thing! :)
Found this on StumbleUpon. It has some articles relating to Chemistry and Physics that might be useful to you.
The following strategies were developed by faculty consultants to help you on exam day:
- Before beginning to solve the free-response questions, it is a good idea to read them all to determine which ones you feel most prepared to answer. You can then proceed to solve the questions in a sequence that will allow you to perform your best.
- In the exam booklet there is an insert that contains the same questions without the blank answer spaces. This can be removed from the booklet and used for reference. No credit is given for anything written on the insert; be sure to write your answers and do all your work for each problem in the pages provided in the answer booklet.
- Show all your work; partial credit is given for partial solutions to problems. If the answer is not correct, you are not likely to receive credit for correct thinking if the person scoring the examination does not see evidence of this process on paper. If you do work that you think is incorrect, simply put an “X” through it, instead of spending time erasing it completely.
- Organize your answers as clearly and neatly as possible, showing the steps you took to reach your solution. If the faculty consultants cannot easily follow your reasoning, you are less likely to receive credit for it.
- Many free-response questions are divided into parts such as a, b, c, and d, with each part calling for a different response. Credit for each part is awarded independently, so you should attempt to solve each part. For example, you may receive no credit for your answer to Part a, but still receive full credit for Part b, c, or d. If the answer to a later part of a question depends on the answer to an earlier part, you may still be able to receive full credit for the later part, even if that earlier answer is wrong.
- It is not necessary to simplify all numerical expressions or to carry out all numerical calculations. You will generally receive most, if not full, credit for answers that contain expressions like sin 40° or ln 2, or that contain symbols for irrational numbers.
- It is important to pay attention to units for quantities that have them. If you keep track of units as you do calculations, it can help you express your answers in terms of the proper units. It is possible to lose points if the units are wrong or are missing from the answer.
- You should not use the “scattershot” approach: i.e., write a bunch of equations hoping that the correct one will be among them so that you can get partial credit. In such cases, faculty consultants may well deduct points for the extraneous or incorrect information.
If you haven’t already, please send me a message with your email (on this group) so that I can make you a member. As a member you can post whatever you like to this group! I think it’s really important for all of us to participate that way we can all learn!
The following outline for an AP Chemistry course is intended to be a guide to the level and breadth of treatment expected rather than to be a syllabus. The percentage after each major topic indicates the approximate proportion of multiple-choice questions on the exam that pertain to the topic.
- Structure of Matter (20%)
- States of Matter (20%)
- Reactions (35-40%)
- Descriptive Chemistry (10-15%)
- Laboratory (5-10%)
I. Structure of Matter (20%)
A. Atomic theory and atomic structure
- Evidence for the atomic theory
- Atomic masses; determination by chemical and physical means
- Atomic number and mass number; isotopes
- Electron energy levels: atomic spectra, quantum numbers, atomic orbitals
- Periodic relationships including, for example, atomic radii, ionization energies, electron affinities, oxidation states
B. Chemical bonding
- Binding forces
a. Types: ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals (including London dispersion forces)
b. Relationships to states, structure, and properties of matter
c. Polarity of bonds, electronegativities
- Molecular models
a. Lewis structures
b. Valence bond: hybridization of orbitals, resonance, sigma and pi bonds
- Geometry of molecules and ions, structural isomerism of simple organic molecules and coordination complexes; dipole moments of molecules; relation of properties to structure
C. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear equations, half-lives, and radioactivity; chemical applications
II. States of Matter (20%)
- Laws of ideal gases
a. Equation of state for an ideal gas
b. Partial pressures
- Kinetic-molecular theory
a. Interpretation of ideal gas laws on the basis of this theory
b. Avogadro’s hypothesis and the mole concept
c. Dependence of kinetic energy of molecules on temperature
d. Deviations from ideal gas laws
B. Liquids and solids
- Liquids and solids from the kinetic-molecular viewpoint
- Phase diagrams of one-component systems
- Changes of state, including critical points and triple points
- Structure of solids; lattice energies
- Types of solutions and factors affecting solubility
- Methods of expressing concentration (The use of normalities is not tested.)
- Raoult’s law and colligative properties (nonvolatile solutes); osmosis
- Non-ideal behavior (qualitative aspects)
III. Reactions (35-40%)
A. Reaction types
- Acid-base reactions; concepts of Arrhenius, Brönsted-Lowry, and Lewis; coordination complexes; amphoterism
- Precipitation reactions
- Oxidation-reduction reactions
a. Oxidation number
b. The role of the electron in oxidation-reduction
c. Electrochemistry: electrolytic and galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws; standard half-cell potentials; Nernst equation; prediction of the direction of redox reactions
- Ionic and molecular species present in chemical systems: net ionic equations
- Balancing of equations including those for redox reactions
- Mass and volume relations with emphasis on the mole concept, including empirical formulas and limiting reactants
- Concept of dynamic equilibrium, physical and chemical; Le Chatelier’s principle; equilibrium constants
- Quantitative treatment
a. Equilibrium constants for gaseous reactions: Kp, Kc
b. Equilibrium constants for reactions in solution
- Constants for acids and bases; pK; pH
- Solubility product constants and their application to precipitation and the dissolution of slightly soluble compounds
- Common ion effect; buffers; hydrolysis
- Concept of rate of reaction
- Use of experimental data and graphical analysis to determine reactant order, rate constants, and reaction rate laws
- Effect of temperature change on rates
- Energy of activation; the role of catalysts
- The relationship between the rate-determining step and a mechanism
- State functions
- First law: change in enthalpy; heat of formation; heat of reaction; Hess’s law; heats of vaporization and fusion; calorimetry
- Second law: entropy; free energy of formation; free energy of reaction; dependence of change in free energy on enthalpy and entropy changes
- Relationship of change in free energy to equilibrium constants and electrode potentials
IV. Descriptive Chemistry (10-15%)
Knowledge of specific facts of chemistry is essential for an understanding of principles and concepts. These descriptive facts, including the chemistry involved in environmental and societal issues, should not be isolated from the principles being studied but should be taught throughout the course to illustrate and illuminate the principles. The following areas should be covered:
A. Chemical reactivity and products of chemical reactions
B. Relationships in the periodic table: horizontal, vertical, and diagonal with examples from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and the first series of transition elements
C. Introduction to organic chemistry: hydrocarbons and functional groups (structure, nomenclature, chemical properties). Physical and chemical properties of simple organic compounds should also be included as exemplary material for the study of other areas such as bonding, equilibria involving weak acids, kinetics, colligative properties, and stoichiometric determinations of empirical and molecular formulas.
V. Laboratory (5-10%)
The differences between college chemistry and the usual secondary school chemistry course are especially evident in the laboratory work. The AP Chemistry Exam includes some questions based on experiences and skills students acquire in the laboratory: making observations of chemical reactions and substances; recording data; calculating and interpreting results based on the quantitative data obtained; and communicating effectively the results of experimental work.
Colleges have reported that some AP candidates, while doing well on the exam, have been at a serious disadvantage because of inadequate laboratory experience. Meaningful laboratory work is important in fulfilling the requirements of a college-level course of a laboratory science and in preparing a student for sophomore-level chemistry courses in college.
Because chemistry professors at some institutions ask to see a record of the laboratory work done by an AP student before making a decision about granting credit, placement, or both, in the chemistry program, students should keep reports of their laboratory work that can be readily reviewed.
The following list summarizes types of problems either explicitly or implicitly included in the topic outline. Attention should be given to significant figures, precision of measured values, and the use of logarithmic and exponential relationships. Critical analysis of the reasonableness of results is to be encouraged.
A. Percentage composition
B. Empirical and molecular formulas from experimental data
C. Molar masses from gas density, freezing-point, and boiling-point measurements
D. Gas laws, including the ideal gas law, Dalton’s law, and Graham’s law
E. Stoichiometric relations using the concept of the mole; titration calculations
F. Mole fractions; molar and molal solutions
G. Faraday’s law of electrolysis
H. Equilibrium constants and their applications, including their use for simultaneous equilibria
I. Standard electrode potentials and their use; Nernst equation
J. Thermodynamic and thermochemical calculations
K. Kinetics calculations
Please answer with the topic you’re on! And remember, if you have anything to share, go for it!
I’m currently doing redox.
Oxidation-Reduction & Balancing